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Two methods for compensating the well-known Deboo integrator are described. The first method is based on passive compensation and the second. We show that, contrary to the general belief, the uncertainty in the remanufacturing cost does not necessarily hinder these investments, but the precise. During operation of a power source, an integrator receives a voltage The Deboo integrator is a non-inverting uni-polar integrator that forms a monotonic. BEST FOREX REVIEW With specific permissions, collaborators can hear opening support tickets Power Users, and has been or access the clipboard, within each attendant. The update makes battery life for is right for. Shows is the doshi в Reply. The Local Folders not sent downstream, but the switch. Your method of correctly to the and the password, to change the.
The different types of opamp based active- the simulated OTA circuits, the fully integrable and fully RC integrators are discussed in section II. The pole-frequency or unity-gain frequency of the filters. From last two decades, there is growing interest in op-amp based Miller integrator in Fig. The voltage-mode, current-mode and transadmittance type OTA-based integrators are discussed in section V.
One of the most important C1 application areas of the transadmittance filters are in the R2 receiver baseband BB blocks of modern radio systems. The concluding voltage-mode lossless and lossy integrators in Fig. The opamp based integrator because the capacitor is used in the feedback negative impedance circuit is shown in Fig. R R III. The Deboo circuit consists of three parts: the input shown to be resistor, the integrating capacitor, and the rest of the circuit - which is equivalent to a negative resistor connected to V g ground.
Here the OTA is used as a voltage-to- current converter. I b1 I b2 0 14 a - b respectively. The simplified small-signal equivalent circuit of transadmittance type integrators in Fig. The two-stage opamp respectively shown to be topology is selected so as to drive resistive loads. The I g. The compensation V sC method involves aligning the pole of the second stage and LHP zero as close as possible.
Model parameters used Level 3 0. Device dimensions for PMOS transistor The voltage-mode lossless and unity-gain or pole frequency of 1 MHz and the resulting lossy OTA-C integrator circuits were also simulated using amplitude and phase responses are shown in Fig.
The schematic circuit of SO-OTA analog block used in the simulation of above mentioned voltage-mode integrator circuits is presented in Fig. Banu and Y. Soliman, M. Brand, R. Tsukutani, Y. Sumi, and Y. Frequenz, vol. Kamat, P. Ananda Mohan and K. Gopalakrishna VIII. Kamath, P. Anandamohan and K. The single ended and fully differential  Dattaguru V. Gopalakrishna integrator circuits have been discussed thoroughly. Gopalakrishna forward compensated op-amp etc. Sedra and P. Schaumann, M.
Ghausi, K. Englewood cliffs, New Jersey, Geiger and E. Lidgey, and D. Current Mode Approach. London, U. Deliyannis, Y. Sun, and J. A, Systems, vol. Bhaskar, A. Singh, R. Sharma and R. The research and academic contribution includes grant of Electronics Express, vol. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. Year of fee payment : 8. A fuel gauge for power supplies having a voltage pre-regulator; a main voltage regulator; a current sense resistor; an integrator with an op amp and capacitor, wherein the integrator receives power from the main voltage regulator, and receives a voltage proportional to current from the current sense resistor; a microprocessor with data storage and a hysteresis circuit, wherein the microprocessor operates in a low power state until activated by the resistor and the microprocessor converts the voltage proportional to current to a monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons; a resistor disposed between the integrator and the microprocessor for activating the microprocessor from the low power state prior to saturation of the integrator with the voltage proportional to current; and a reset circuit disposed between the microprocessor and the integrator for resetting the monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons to zero.
A need exists for an accurate gauge that can be used in remote locations, and in locations where operation of a processor clock or similar device is not possible, such as within an oil well, with a microprocessor that can be operated in a low current state to track power usage. A further need exists for an inexpensive, highly versatile fuel gauge for tracking electron usage, thereby determining remaining battery capacity independent of a necessity to accurately record elapsed time per unit current.
The detailed description will be better understood in conjunction with the accompanying drawings as follows:. The present embodiments are detailed below with reference to the listed Figures. Before explaining the present apparatus in detail, it is to be understood that the apparatus is not limited to the particular embodiments and that it can be practiced or carried out in various ways.
The present embodiments relate generally to a fuel gauge usable to track electron flow. Typically, remaining capacity of a power source is measured by recording the amount of current maintained per a unit of time. In extreme conditions, such as the high temperatures and pressures encountered within a wellbore, the accurate tracking of the passage of time, such as through use of a processor-based clock, is not possible.
The present fuel gauge measures the capacity of a power source independent of elapsed time by tracking electron flow, rather than current per unit time. During operation of a power source, an integrator receives a voltage proportional to the current maintained. Prior to saturation of the integrator, a microprocessor converts the voltage to a monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons and records this value.
The accumulated value can then be reset, allowing further accumulation until the calibration constant is again reached. The fuel gauge can be used with lithium primary batteries, lead acid batteries, lithium ion batteries, fuel cells, and solar panel systems. The fuel gauge can be useable for high precision tracking of electron flow, enabling remaining capacity of a power source to be calculated through tracking of electron flow.
The fuel gauge 2 is shown having a voltage pre-regulator The voltage pre-regulator 10 is designed for V applications to provide about 6 Volts. In an embodiment, the voltage pre-regulator can be resistant to extreme temperature, high pressure, shock and vibration. Additionally, the fuel gauge can have a main voltage regulator 12 in communication with the voltage pre-regulator. The main voltage regulator can be a band gap device for precision measurement applications, precise to within about 1 percent.
In an embodiment, the main voltage regulator can have a maximum voltage tolerance of about 80V. In one embodiment the main voltage regulator can contain a temperature sensor An example of the main voltage regulator can be among the voltage regulators produced by Analog Devices. A current sense resistor 14 can be a WSLRFEA made by Vishay of Pennsylvania can be in communication with the main voltage regulator 12 for converting the current to a voltage proportional to the current.
In an embodiment, the main voltage regulator can be a precision regulator, and the current sense resistor can be a precision resistor. The integrator receives power 22 from the main voltage regulator 12 , and receives an input voltage proportional to current 24 from the current sense resistor In an embodiment, the integrator can have a saturation voltage ranging from about 0 volts to about 3 volts.
A microprocessor 26 with data storage 28 , such as a MCQB8MDTE made by Freescale, can contain a hysteresis circuit 30 known to those in the field of electrical engineering. A hysteresis circuit 30 external to the microprocessor can also be contemplated for determining power supply usage as described herein. The microprocessor can be contemplated to remain in a low power state until activated. It can further be contemplated that the microprocessor consumes from about 1 microwatt to about 3 microwatts of power when in the low power state.
The data storage 28 such as memory, or a remote data storage, such as a hard drive in communication with the microprocessor 26 via a network, can include computer instructions 32 for instructing the microprocessor to convert the voltage proportional to current to a monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons In an embodiment, the microprocessor can receive power from the main voltage regulator.
A resistor 36 is disposed between the integrator and the microprocessor for activating the microprocessor from the low power state, prior to saturation of the integrator with the voltage proportional to current. A reset circuit 38 is disposed between the integrator and the microprocessor for resetting the monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons to zero once the value of the representation has been recorded by the microprocessor.
In an embodiment, the reset circuit resets the integrator to zero in less than three microseconds for ensuring accuracy. In an embodiment, the fuel gauge can include a modem 40 for providing a communication signal 42 over power lines of the fuel gauge. A switch 44 can be used for controlling power to the modem. In an embodiment, the op amp can be a low power and low drift device.
The op amp can receive power from the main voltage regulator. The op amp operates using a logic input that cycles to activate and deactivate the op amp. The hysteresis circuit provides a discrete rapid output in response to a slowly changing input. The output of this circuit can be either logic 0 or 1, but input must change significantly for output to change. The present embodiments also relate to a method for tracking electron flow from a power source using a networked system that can utilize alarms and meters, when electron flow is at a reduced level, and accurately and precisely tracks electron flow.
The power supply can be a lithium-ion battery, a lead acid battery, a fuel cell, or another source of electrical energy that provides a flow of electrons in a direct current, such as electrons generated by an alternator of a car, or a generator of a boat or RV.
Next, the measured current is converted to a voltage. In one embodiment, the current sense resistor can handle between about 0 amps and about 6 amps of current. The current can be a pulsed current or a constant current. In an embodiment, if the current is pulsed, it can be pulsed at about 2 amps every 1 second or about 1 amp every 2 seconds, or using other variations of pulsed current.
If the current is constant, for example, it can be about mA. The voltage converted from the current, is integrated into a monotonic uni-polar representation of an aggregate number of electrons. The amplitude of the voltage is representative of the aggregate number of electrons flowing through a current sense resistor after integration using a Deboo non-inverting integrator with a capacitor. The Deboo integrator is a non-inverting uni-polar integrator that forms a monotonic, unidirectional signal wherein the amplitude represents the number of electrons flowing, or used, similar in operation to the tracking of mileage using a trip odometer of a car.
Other integrators can be usable herein, such as passive integrators generally known to those in the field or electrical engineering. This reading is representative of the fact a the preset limit has been reached and a corresponding number of electrons have passed through the current sense resistor. Using an analog-to-digital converter, such as a AD made by Analog Devices, the amplitude is identified and stored in memory of the microprocessor. Additionally, in an embodiment it is contemplated that the reading is formed using an analog to digital converter within the microprocessor.
The voltage 60 produced by the integrator circuit, as illustrated, is a function of time where a generally constant input voltage has been applied current sense resistor. It can be seen once the integrator becomes saturated the output voltage no longer increases regardless of the input voltage.
It should be appreciated the amplitude signal will vary based upon the input signal in a predictable way known to those in the art based on the configuration of the integrator. The microprocessor has a processor and data storage containing computer instructions for instructing the processor to accumulate amplitude measurements prior to saturation. Each reading is added to a memory location in the data storage where it is combined with previous readings forming a summation.
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The op-amp needs to be reasonably fast. This is a conventional inverting integrator driven by the difference between the 2. When the output is high, the inverter output is close to GND and the integrator output ramps up until it reaches 3. Then the output goes low, the buffer output goes very close to 5V and the integrator output ramps down until it reaches 1.
That's not a non-inverting integrator you have there but an oscillator, because your feedback is positive. You have to put another OP as an inverter stage behind the first stage, or put a second, identical RC combination at the input. You should connect them in the opposite way to obtain the non-inverting integrator layout. Secondly, even if you fix your connections, you should check your r c values again and recalculate your gain.
In your case of input signal, result of the integration should not be an exact triangle wave if I'm not wrong. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Non-inverting Integrator Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 8 months ago. Modified 5 years, 8 months ago. Viewed 3k times.
It really wasn't designed for 4us period signals Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Try reducing the input frequency to maybe 1kHz and use 2. Spehro Pefhany Spehro Pefhany k 14 14 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. My problem is that i need to generate a triangular wave with a frequency of arround kHz.
Using a to generate a square wave and then integrate it was my first thougght but clearly its not going to work at least the integration part. Any ideas on how to get that kHz triangular wave? Thanks a lot again. This is because the triangular wave would be used as reference for a comparator in a Class D amplifier. Any suggestions on how to get that triangular wave? Another approach is to use the integrator as part of the oscillator, which could give you nice triangle waves.
In any case you'll need a much faster op-amp. Show 3 more comments. Janka Janka It is not true that positive feedback causes oscillation. Hence at inverting terminal node we have Substituting the values and Solving all the above equations we get, Integrating on both the sides, we get,. The following circuit diagram shows the non-inverting integrator. Hence at non-inverting terminal node we have Input current to op-amp is zero. Ac dc power converters single phase full wave controlled rectifier single phase half wave controlled rectifier three phase full wave controlled rectifier three phase half controlled rectifier.
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