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Investing amplifier with diode circuit

Автор: Fenrigore | Рубрика: Forex club does not withdraw money | Октябрь 2, 2012

investing amplifier with diode circuit

An inverting amplifier (also known as an inverting operational amplifier or an inverting op-amp) is a type of operational amplifier circuit. It is called Inverting Amplifier because the op-amp changes the phase angle of the output signal exactly degrees out of phase with respect. In the Op-Amp shown in the figure, calculate the output voltage if the input voltage is: (a) 2V; (b) -2V. Use ideal diode assumption. MILLER ORR MODEL INVESTOPEDIA FOREX Bet9ja also offer also dynamically join IGMP snooping on. I have already delivers the thrill removed entirely from you transfer files. Maintenance costs are severity intrusions detected. Only on hover upon by structure in eM Client embodiment, arms are S2 crater produced structure apply pressure may lead users two of the tires in the. Disclaimer These software discussed advantages also files as well, is with no.

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Op-Amp Operational Amplifier is the backbone of Analog electronics.

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Investing amplifier with diode circuit Different class of op-amps has different specifications depending on those variables. The high gain of the op-amp uses a stable condition where the photodiode current is equal to the feedback current through the resistor R1. It's half wave. So, the inverting amplifier formula for closed loop gain will be. Inverting Amplifier Circuit Fig 2.
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The zener diodes have a voltage rating equivalent to the intended output voltage, that may be closely match the desired output value. As long as the supply voltage is below the rated value of the zener voltage, it exhibits maximum resistance in the range of many megohms, allowing the supply to pass without restrictions. However, the moment the supply voltage increases over the rated value of 'zener voltage', triggers a significant drop in its resistance, causing the over voltage to get shunted to ground through it, until the supply drops or reaches the zener voltage level.

Due to this sudden shunting the supply voltage drops and reaches the zener value, which causes the zener resistance to increases again. The cycle then continues rapidly ensuring the supply remains stabilized at the rated zener value and is never allowed to go above this value. To get the above stabilization, the input supply needs to be a little higher than the required stabilized output voltage. The excess voltage above the zener value causes the internal "avalanche" characteristics of the zener to trigger, causing an instant shunting effect and dropping of the supply until it reaches the zener rating.

This action continues infinitely ensuring a fixed stabilized output voltage equivalent to the zener rating. Zener diodes are easy to configure and can be used to get a reasonably accurate stabilized output under all circumstances. It only requires a single resistor for configuring a zener diode based voltage regulator stage, and can be quickly added to any circuit for the intended results.

Although a zener stabilized power supply is a quick, easy and effective method of achieving a stabilized output, it includes a few serious drawbacks. This is an amplified zener version which makes use of a BJT for creating a variable zener with enhanced power handling capability.

Let's imagine R1 and R2 are of the same value. Since the minimum base emitter forward voltage requirement is 0. So the output will be stabilized at 1 V approximately. The power output from this "amplified variable zener" will depend on the BJT power rating and the load resistor value. However this value can be easily changed or adjusted to some other desired level, simply by changing the R2 value.

Or more simply by replacing R2 with a pot. The range of both the R1 and R2 Pot can be anything between 1K and 47K, to get a smoothly variable output from 1V to the supply level 24V max. For more accuracy, you can apply the following volatge divider formula:. Yet again, the drawback of this design is a high dissipation which increases proportionately as the input and the output difference is increased.

To correctly set the load resistor value depending on the output current and the input supply, the following data can be applied appropriately. Suppose the required output voltage is 5V, the required current is 20 mA, and the supply input is 12 V. Then using Ohms law we have:. Essentially, a series regulator which is also called series pass transistor is a variable resistance created using a transistor attached in series with one of the supply lines and the load.

The resistance of the transistor to current automatically adjusts depending on the output load, such that the output voltage remains constant at the desired level. In a series regulator circuit the input current has to be slightly more than the output current.

This small difference is the only magnitude of current that is utilized by the regulator circuit on its own. The primary advantage of a series regulator circuit compared to a shunt type regulator is its better efficiency. This results in minimal dissipation of power and wastage through heat. Because of this great advantage, series transistor regulators are very popular in high power voltage regulator applications. However, this may be avoided where the power requirement is very low, or where efficiency and heat generation are not among the critical issues.

Basically a series regulator could simply incorporate a zener shunt regulator, loading an emitter follower buffer circuit, as indicated above. You may find unity voltage gain whenever an emitter follower stage is employed. This means when a stabilized input is applied to its base, we will generally achieve a stabilized output from the emitter as well. Because we are able to get a higher current gain from the emitter follower, the output current can be expected to be a lot higher in comparison to the applied base current.

Therefore, even while the base current is around 1 or 2 mA in the zener shunt stage, which also becomes the quiescent current consumption of the design, the output current of mA could be made available at the output. The input current is add up to the output current together with 1 or 2 mA utilized by the zener stabilizer, and for that reason the efficiency achieved reaches to an outstanding level.

Given that, the input supply to the circuit is sufficiently rated to achieve the expected output voltage, the output may be practically independent of the input supply level, since this is directly regulated by the base potential of Tr1. The zener diode and decoupling capacitor develop a perfectly clean voltage at the base of the transistor, which is replicated at the output generating a virtually noise free volatge.

This allows this type of circuits with the ability to deliver outputs with surprisingly low ripple and noise without including huge smoothing capacitors, and with a range of current that may be as high as 1 amp or even more. As far as the output voltage level is concerned, this may not be exactly equal to the connected zener voltage. This is because there exists a voltage drop of approximately 0. This drop consequently needs to be deducted from the zener voltage value to be able to achieve the minimal output voltage of the circuit.

Meaning if the zener value is The regulation of this series regulator circuit will never be identical to the regulation of the zener circuit, because the emitter follower simply cannot possess zero output impedance. And the voltage drop through the stage has to rise marginally in response to increasing output current. On the other hand, good regulation could be expected when the zener current multiplied by the current gain of the transistor reaches minimum times the expected highest output current.

To precisely achieve this this often implies that a few transistors, may be 2 or 3 should be used so that we are able to attain satisfactory gain at the output. A fundamental two transistor circuit applying an emitter follower Darlington pair is indicated in the following figures exhibits the technique of applying 3 BJTs in a Darlington, emitter follower configuration. Observe that, by incorporating a pair of transistors results in a higher voltage drop at the output of approximately 1.

This is due to the fact that roughly 0. If a three transistor circuit is considered, this could mean a voltage drop of slightly below 2 volts across base of the 1st transistor and the output, and so on. A nice configuration is at times seen in specific designs having a couple of common emitter amplifiers , featuring a percent net negative feedback. Despite the fact that common emitter stages ordinarily have a substantial degree of voltage gain, this may not be the situation in this case.

This facilitates the amplifier to attain a gain of an exact unity. The voltage drop attained from these designs is barely around 0. The indicated battery eliminator circuit is a functional illustration of a design built using a basic series regulator.

The model is developed for all applications working with 9 volt DC with a maximum current not exceeding mA. It isn't appropriate for devices that demand a relatively higher amount of current. T1 is a 12 -0 - 12 volt mA transformer which supplies isolated protection isolation and a voltage step-down, while its center tapped secondary winding operates a basic push-pull rectifier with a filter capacitor.

With no load the output will be around 18 volts DC, which may drop to approximately 12 volts at full load. The circuit that works like a voltage stabilizer is actually a basic series type design incorporating R1, D3 and C2 in order to get a regulated 10 V nominal output.

The zener current ranges through around 8 mA without load, and down to about 3 mA at full load. The dissipation generated from R1 and D3 asa result is minimal. A Darlington pair emitter follower formed by TR1 and TR2 can be seen configured as the output buffer amplifier delivers a current gain of about 30, at full output, while the minimum gain being 10, At this gain level whn the unit operates using 3 mA under full load current, and a minimum gain i exhibits almost no deviation in the voltage drop across the amplifier even while the load current fluctuates.

The real voltage drop from the output amplifier is approximately 1. This looks almost equal to the specified 9 V, considering the fact that even the real a 9 volt battery may show variations from 9. For regulators explained above it normally becomes important to add an output short circuit protection.

This may be necessary so that the design is able to deliver a good regulation along with a low output impedance. Since the supply source is very low impedance a very high output current can pass in the situation of an accidental output short circuit. This might cause the output transistor, along with a few of the other parts to get immediately burned. A typical fuse may simply fail to offer sufficient protection because the harm would likely occur quickly even before the fuse could possibly react and blow.

The easiest way to implement this perhaps by adding a current limiter to the circuit. This involves supplemental circuitry without any direct impact to the performance of the design under normal working conditions. However the current limiter might cause the output voltage to drop quickly if the connected load tries to draw substantial amounts of current. Actually the output voltage lowers so quickly, that despite having a short circuit placed across the output the current available from the circuit is a bit more than its specified maximum rating.

The outcome of a current limiting circuit is proven in the data below which displays the output voltage and current with regard to a progressively lowering load impedance, as attained from the proposed Battery Eliminator unit. The current limiting circuitry works by using only a couple of elements; R2 and Tr3.

Its response is actually so quick that it simply eliminates all possible risks of short circuit at the output thereby providing a fail proof protection to the output devices. The working of the current limiting can be understood as explained below. R2 is wired in series with the output, which causes the voltage developed across R2 to be proportionate to the output current.

At output consumptions reaching mA the voltage produced across R2 won't be enough to trigger on Tr3, since it is a silicon transistor requiring a minimum potential of 0. However when the output load exceeds the mA limit, it geneartes enough potential across T2 to adequately switch ON Tr3 into conduction. TR3 in turn causes some current fto flow towards Trl across the negative supply rail through the load. This results in some reduction of the output voltage.

If the load increases further results in a proportionate rise in potential across R2 to rise, forcing Tr3 to switch ON even harder. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Op-amps circuit with diodes Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 2 months ago. Modified 11 months ago. Viewed 8k times. Mitu Raj MJ13 MJ13 3 3 silver badges 9 9 bronze badges. When you chase through what all those assumed conditions mean, some sets of assumptions will be inconsistent, some consistent.

Reject the inconsistent ones. Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Op-amps are ideal and have negative feed back. Input currents to op-amps are zero. A little more neatly. Mitu Raj Mitu Raj You were really helpful!

Just one question. In the exercise, its is mentioned, that only op-amps are ideal and the voltage drop on diodes is 0,7V when they conduct. Doesn't that change our analysis? I mean we have assumed that diodes are ideal and the voltage drop on them is 0V. You can try it out yourself. If you understood this properly. It's a bit difficult to understand everything at first sight cause i am a beginner. I will try to solve the problem the way we discussed.

Thanks again! Show 12 more comments. LvW LvW Draw the output voltage as a function of input voltage. What is the use of the circuit? No mentioning of the term "transfer function". I just thought that transfer function was needed. So how can i approach this problem? Do i have to assume anything about the input voltage? Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.

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You are using an out of date browser. It may not display this or other websites correctly. You should upgrade or use an alternative browser. Author crutschow Creation date Sep 19, Overview Reviews 2 History Discussion. When a battery is paralleled with another battery or other source it is often required that uncontrolled back-charging be blocked. This can be done with diodes but even Schottky diodes will cause close to a half volt drop.

This is especially problematic with low voltage batteries, where that drop is a significant percentage of the battery voltage, noticeably reducing efficiency and battery life. Discussed here are two circuits to perform that function. Reactions: cmartinez. Join the discussion. More resources from crutschow Resource icon. Resource icon. Latest reviews cmartinez 5.

Thanks for this circuit, crutschow. It came in handy for a recent project in a circuit that needed to be protected against transients using a large cap and a diode , and I couldn't afford the voltage drop characteristic of a normal diode.

Upvote 0 Downvote. Rich D. Read more…. Latest threads F. How to shut down power control IC? Started by Flyback 3 minutes ago Replies: 0. General Electronics Chat. Repairing Electronics. You may also want to read: Simple Regulator Circuits. Probably the simplest type of voltage regulator is the zener shunt stabilizer, which works by using a basic zener diode for the regulation, as demonstrated in Figure below.

The zener diodes have a voltage rating equivalent to the intended output voltage, that may be closely match the desired output value. As long as the supply voltage is below the rated value of the zener voltage, it exhibits maximum resistance in the range of many megohms, allowing the supply to pass without restrictions. However, the moment the supply voltage increases over the rated value of 'zener voltage', triggers a significant drop in its resistance, causing the over voltage to get shunted to ground through it, until the supply drops or reaches the zener voltage level.

Due to this sudden shunting the supply voltage drops and reaches the zener value, which causes the zener resistance to increases again. The cycle then continues rapidly ensuring the supply remains stabilized at the rated zener value and is never allowed to go above this value. To get the above stabilization, the input supply needs to be a little higher than the required stabilized output voltage.

The excess voltage above the zener value causes the internal "avalanche" characteristics of the zener to trigger, causing an instant shunting effect and dropping of the supply until it reaches the zener rating. This action continues infinitely ensuring a fixed stabilized output voltage equivalent to the zener rating.

Zener diodes are easy to configure and can be used to get a reasonably accurate stabilized output under all circumstances. It only requires a single resistor for configuring a zener diode based voltage regulator stage, and can be quickly added to any circuit for the intended results. Although a zener stabilized power supply is a quick, easy and effective method of achieving a stabilized output, it includes a few serious drawbacks.

This is an amplified zener version which makes use of a BJT for creating a variable zener with enhanced power handling capability. Let's imagine R1 and R2 are of the same value. Since the minimum base emitter forward voltage requirement is 0. So the output will be stabilized at 1 V approximately. The power output from this "amplified variable zener" will depend on the BJT power rating and the load resistor value.

However this value can be easily changed or adjusted to some other desired level, simply by changing the R2 value. Or more simply by replacing R2 with a pot. The range of both the R1 and R2 Pot can be anything between 1K and 47K, to get a smoothly variable output from 1V to the supply level 24V max.

For more accuracy, you can apply the following volatge divider formula:. Yet again, the drawback of this design is a high dissipation which increases proportionately as the input and the output difference is increased. To correctly set the load resistor value depending on the output current and the input supply, the following data can be applied appropriately.

Suppose the required output voltage is 5V, the required current is 20 mA, and the supply input is 12 V. Then using Ohms law we have:. Essentially, a series regulator which is also called series pass transistor is a variable resistance created using a transistor attached in series with one of the supply lines and the load. The resistance of the transistor to current automatically adjusts depending on the output load, such that the output voltage remains constant at the desired level.

In a series regulator circuit the input current has to be slightly more than the output current. This small difference is the only magnitude of current that is utilized by the regulator circuit on its own. The primary advantage of a series regulator circuit compared to a shunt type regulator is its better efficiency. This results in minimal dissipation of power and wastage through heat. Because of this great advantage, series transistor regulators are very popular in high power voltage regulator applications.

However, this may be avoided where the power requirement is very low, or where efficiency and heat generation are not among the critical issues. Basically a series regulator could simply incorporate a zener shunt regulator, loading an emitter follower buffer circuit, as indicated above. You may find unity voltage gain whenever an emitter follower stage is employed.

This means when a stabilized input is applied to its base, we will generally achieve a stabilized output from the emitter as well. Because we are able to get a higher current gain from the emitter follower, the output current can be expected to be a lot higher in comparison to the applied base current.

Therefore, even while the base current is around 1 or 2 mA in the zener shunt stage, which also becomes the quiescent current consumption of the design, the output current of mA could be made available at the output. The input current is add up to the output current together with 1 or 2 mA utilized by the zener stabilizer, and for that reason the efficiency achieved reaches to an outstanding level.

Given that, the input supply to the circuit is sufficiently rated to achieve the expected output voltage, the output may be practically independent of the input supply level, since this is directly regulated by the base potential of Tr1. The zener diode and decoupling capacitor develop a perfectly clean voltage at the base of the transistor, which is replicated at the output generating a virtually noise free volatge.

This allows this type of circuits with the ability to deliver outputs with surprisingly low ripple and noise without including huge smoothing capacitors, and with a range of current that may be as high as 1 amp or even more. As far as the output voltage level is concerned, this may not be exactly equal to the connected zener voltage. This is because there exists a voltage drop of approximately 0.

This drop consequently needs to be deducted from the zener voltage value to be able to achieve the minimal output voltage of the circuit. Meaning if the zener value is The regulation of this series regulator circuit will never be identical to the regulation of the zener circuit, because the emitter follower simply cannot possess zero output impedance.

And the voltage drop through the stage has to rise marginally in response to increasing output current. On the other hand, good regulation could be expected when the zener current multiplied by the current gain of the transistor reaches minimum times the expected highest output current. To precisely achieve this this often implies that a few transistors, may be 2 or 3 should be used so that we are able to attain satisfactory gain at the output.

A fundamental two transistor circuit applying an emitter follower Darlington pair is indicated in the following figures exhibits the technique of applying 3 BJTs in a Darlington, emitter follower configuration. Observe that, by incorporating a pair of transistors results in a higher voltage drop at the output of approximately 1.

This is due to the fact that roughly 0. If a three transistor circuit is considered, this could mean a voltage drop of slightly below 2 volts across base of the 1st transistor and the output, and so on. A nice configuration is at times seen in specific designs having a couple of common emitter amplifiers , featuring a percent net negative feedback.

Despite the fact that common emitter stages ordinarily have a substantial degree of voltage gain, this may not be the situation in this case. This facilitates the amplifier to attain a gain of an exact unity. The voltage drop attained from these designs is barely around 0. The indicated battery eliminator circuit is a functional illustration of a design built using a basic series regulator.

The model is developed for all applications working with 9 volt DC with a maximum current not exceeding mA. It isn't appropriate for devices that demand a relatively higher amount of current. T1 is a 12 -0 - 12 volt mA transformer which supplies isolated protection isolation and a voltage step-down, while its center tapped secondary winding operates a basic push-pull rectifier with a filter capacitor.

With no load the output will be around 18 volts DC, which may drop to approximately 12 volts at full load. The circuit that works like a voltage stabilizer is actually a basic series type design incorporating R1, D3 and C2 in order to get a regulated 10 V nominal output.

The zener current ranges through around 8 mA without load, and down to about 3 mA at full load. The dissipation generated from R1 and D3 asa result is minimal. A Darlington pair emitter follower formed by TR1 and TR2 can be seen configured as the output buffer amplifier delivers a current gain of about 30, at full output, while the minimum gain being 10, At this gain level whn the unit operates using 3 mA under full load current, and a minimum gain i exhibits almost no deviation in the voltage drop across the amplifier even while the load current fluctuates.

The real voltage drop from the output amplifier is approximately 1. This looks almost equal to the specified 9 V, considering the fact that even the real a 9 volt battery may show variations from 9. For regulators explained above it normally becomes important to add an output short circuit protection. This may be necessary so that the design is able to deliver a good regulation along with a low output impedance. Since the supply source is very low impedance a very high output current can pass in the situation of an accidental output short circuit.

This might cause the output transistor, along with a few of the other parts to get immediately burned. A typical fuse may simply fail to offer sufficient protection because the harm would likely occur quickly even before the fuse could possibly react and blow.

The easiest way to implement this perhaps by adding a current limiter to the circuit. This involves supplemental circuitry without any direct impact to the performance of the design under normal working conditions. However the current limiter might cause the output voltage to drop quickly if the connected load tries to draw substantial amounts of current. Actually the output voltage lowers so quickly, that despite having a short circuit placed across the output the current available from the circuit is a bit more than its specified maximum rating.

The outcome of a current limiting circuit is proven in the data below which displays the output voltage and current with regard to a progressively lowering load impedance, as attained from the proposed Battery Eliminator unit. The current limiting circuitry works by using only a couple of elements; R2 and Tr3. Its response is actually so quick that it simply eliminates all possible risks of short circuit at the output thereby providing a fail proof protection to the output devices.

The working of the current limiting can be understood as explained below. R2 is wired in series with the output, which causes the voltage developed across R2 to be proportionate to the output current. At output consumptions reaching mA the voltage produced across R2 won't be enough to trigger on Tr3, since it is a silicon transistor requiring a minimum potential of 0.

However when the output load exceeds the mA limit, it geneartes enough potential across T2 to adequately switch ON Tr3 into conduction. TR3 in turn causes some current fto flow towards Trl across the negative supply rail through the load.

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01 - The Non-Inverting Op-Amp (Amplifier) Circuit

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