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A pen; Paper; 2 glasses; Water. Method: Draw an arrow pointing left or right on the paper and rest it against something so it is standing up. Put the note card behind the glass of water and slowly move the note card back. Look through the glass from the front and observe the arrow. Key ESG Factors · Environmental. Conservation of the natural world. - Climate change and carbon emissions - Air and water pollution · Social. Consideration of. OAUTH 2 0 BASICS OF INVESTING If you use of moments here. Digital, web and leader in modern as though your with an easy, companies and executives. The one thing that your provider Providers in Load. Create the new other systems that foreign component:.
In essence, this provides a constant cycle of evaporation and condensation in the enclosed plastic bottle. Further, water when irradiated by the sun is exposed to decreasing amounts of energy of radiation; violet being high frequency of light energy whereas red is of lower frequency and higher heat index. After the exposure of 40 days, the bottled water was wrapped with aluminum foil to protect from exogenous irradiation. Diagrammatic representation of the Chemical, Physical and Biological modifications in properties investigated.
The overall aim of this study is to scientifically investigate the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. This study specifically addresses the chemical and physical changes in exposed E water, and its effect on biological activity. The potential biological significance of changes in the E-waters was determined by testing their effect on: 1 lymphocyte human peripheral blood proliferation, 2 mosquito larva Anopheles viability and 3 seed Diolichos Uniflorous germination.
Double-distilled water was obtained from the laboratory, and well water was obtained from a well in Columbus, Texas. The double-distilled water was placed in sterile ml clear glass media bottles. Well water was used to fill cleaned ounce clear glass sterilized bottles, and heat sterilized. Bottles were cellophane-wrapped corresponding to the visible individual spectral colors of violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red.
The colored cellophane color distribution in the red —nm , green —nm and blue —nm filter was measured on TQC90, a color transmission and reflection densitometer, Electronic Systems Engineering Company, Inc. Cushing, OK. Controls included one unwrapped bottle of each type of water; i. The distilled water and well-water were exposed to sunlight from July through August in Columbus, Texas. The double-distilled water in plastic bottles was exposed to sunlight from October through November in Jackson, Mississippi.
Bottles minimum of two bottles for each cellophane paper were exposed to sunlight for 40 days and thereafter the bottles were placed in the dark to avoid unwanted light exposure without removal of cellophane. All experiments used water obtained from plastic bottles except for studies in germination. For chemical composition analysis, eight E-water samples were placed in ml sterile tubes wrapped with aluminum foil to protect them from further exposure to radiation. Eight 15 ml sterile polystyrene tissue culture tubes were filled with 1 gram of sodium bicarbonate and 10 ml of the different E-waters at room temperature.
The tubes were vortexed to dissolve the solute. After 24 hours, solubilization was determined macroscopically. Physical conductance of each E-water was measured using a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter. Osmolarity of E-waters was determined using the Wescor vapor pressure osmometer, Wescor, Inc.
Logan, UT. Lymphocytes were incubated with phytohemagglutinin P , a T cell mitogen, in presence or absence of E-waters. In a cell proliferation assay [ 10 ], peripheral blood 10 ml was obtained from healthy subjects and lymphocytes were purified using ficol-hypaque gradient. Mosquito larvae, particularly the IV-in stared stages of the Anopheles species, were removed from an outdoor stagnate water supply and ten larvae were placed in well plates for viability testing.
The E-waters were diluted and where the dilutions were made with unexposed distilled water Baxter, Deerfield, IL. The plates were incubated for 10 days normal hatching time for mosquito larvae at room temperature for normal morphogenesis to take place and the viability was determined at 24, 48, 72, 96 and hours. A mosquito was considered viable if the wings had emerged. The experiments were performed twice in triplicate. The experiment was carried out for 10 days hrs , however, no difference was noted between 96 and hrs data not shown.
Three conditions were tested for each time period, i. Eight petri dishes were filled with 7 grams of Horsegram Dolichos Uniflorous seeds [ 11 ]. In this experimental design, the effects of energy on the material of the container transparent versus translucent , season of incubation summer versus fall , and the type of water well water versus distilled water were tested.
Three types of water were tested viz. The cotyledons of the seeds were measured in millimeters from their point of visible emersion. The seeds were then incubated for an additional 24 hours and measured again. Three separate experiments were performed in duplicate, one using well water, one using sterilized double-distilled water in sterilized transparent glass bottles, and one using sterilized distilled water in sterilized translucent plastic bottles Commercially available from Baxter.
First, the chemical analysis was performed on 72 elements Table 1A of which only boron, calcium, magnesium and rubidium showed coefficient of variances CV greater than 10 when compared to E-control Table 1B. In particular, boron concentration in parts per billion ppb steadily increases from E-Violet water 13, ppb to E-Red water 27, ppb , while E-control corresponded to 12, ppb. The compositional distribution of Boron according to the photon energy in electron volts eV has been depicted in Figure 2.
The Binomial equation for the compositional distribution of boron which gives the best fit is:. Distribution profile of boron leeching from the plastic bottle into the water after exposure to specific photon energy of visible spectrum of light. The pH of different E-waters was determined and found to be about 5.
The addition of sodium bicarbonate to water changes the solubility profile. The solubility showed a variable pattern where the sodium bicarbonate solubility of E-control was between E-green and E-blue. Interestingly, E-indigo exhibited maximal solubility while E-orange exhibited greatest insolubility Figure 3. Each tube contains 1. Macroscopic evaluation exhibits maximum solubility with E-I and maximal insolubility with E-O.
The Conductivity of different E-waters using conductance meter Wheatstone Bridge. The binomial equation for the distribution of osmolarity which gives the best fit is:. Osmolarity study of different E-waters by Osmometer. Second, the effect of E-water on T cell proliferation was assessed. T cells in media alone and in the presence of P, are considered as base value Figure 6.
While most E-water tests showed some degree of suppression of T-cell proliferation, E-blue showed complete inhibition of PHA stimulated T cell proliferation. The proliferative responsiveness of peripheral blood T cells with different irradiated waters to phytoheamagglutinin P. Third, the impact of the irradiated water on the growth of mosquito larvae was assessed. These studies indicate that E-violet and E-indigo showed similar values to E-control for viability when tested undiluted, while E-blue and E-green greatly inhibit larval growth for up to 72 hours.
E-yellow, E-orange and E-red promoted the hatching of mosquito larvae, except E-red in dilutions of and E-blue completely abolished larvae growth in the three concentrations tested undiluted, , Finally, the effect of E-water on seed germination was investigated Table 3. E-red water suppressed seed germination at 72 hours in all the three water groups tested.
Mean of E-control is compared to other E-waters for enhanced growth by multiple comparison procedure Turkey test. This means that there is more solar energy delivered in glass versus plastic. In germination experiments we demonstrated that maximal root elongation and minimal root elongation were independent of the vessel i. Thus, implying that the energy transfer is dependent on the wavelength rather than the amount of sunlight the vessel receives. Also the effect of organic material like plasticisers for example dibutyl pthalate and other esters used in the synthesis of plastic bottles is not known.
Whether the variation of conductance, osmolarity, salt-solubility and chemical composition of the different types of water had any impact on the germination process, mosquito larva survival, or cell proliferation requires further investigation. Likewise, the influence of lunar irradiation, if any cannot be ascertained.
It is possible that the photochemical effect observed could have been a thermal effect based on solar spectral irradiance [ 2 ]. This postulate cannot be authenticated because the temperature of the E-waters in the bottles was not recorded during the experiment. The conductivity, mosquito hatching, T cell-data, some ICP data and the osmolarity data seem to mimic the solar energy spectrum with a maximum effect in the blue-green region.
Furthermore, the E-waters were tested at least three months after being at room temperature where the thermal effect if any, would have been equilibrated. Since boron is constantly increased in concentration from violet to red, the change in elemental concentration could possibly be due to the overall excess heating by red cellophane paper, which allows more leaching. It is not known whether the leached elements were present due to the process of the manufacture of the polypropylene-polyethylene plastic.
On the other hand, we know that the distilled water was handled in the same manner for all test-bottles. Since the elemental composition is different after day exposure at certain wavelengths of sunlight, there is an implication that there is a solar effect causing leaching of some components contained in the plastic. Further investigation is on going to determine the source of boron and other elemental composition after irradiation.
Swiss studies, however, have shown that photoproducts are formed after solar exposure on the outer surface of the plastic bottle and that no substances hazardous to the health are leached into the water through the bottle [ 4 ]. In contrast to the Swiss study, in our study we report leaching of elements into the water [ 3 ].
The exposure of water to sunlight has no influence on the pH of water. Thus, using sodium bicarbonate solubility as an example at room temperature, we are at the edge of solubility in which the solute must be fairly soluble. Whether the greater insolubility of the E-orange water as compared to E-control was due to density clouds of water molecules increasing the forces of repulsion, or whether the forces of attraction of the sodium bicarbonate were reduced is not known.
Attractive forces in the molecular structure of sodium bicarbonate may have undergone changes in order to sediment rather than solubilize as observed with E-orange. This is a clear-cut indication that exposure to specific solar spectrum energizes the water resulting a change in the pattern of salt solubility.
Leached chemicals such as boron, calcium, magnesium and rubidium appear in such minute quantities ppb as would not cause difference in conductance. Thus, the increased conductance such that we observed with E-indigo must be due to some modification by the irradiation process. Thus, the differences in voltages would cause a potential difference, meaning that energy is trapped in the water and manifesting as a potential difference.
It is very unlikely that the difference in conductance is due to the impurities that create differences in ionic composition due to the use of distilled water which is devoid of contamination. It is noteworthy to mention that in a separate study; only E-yellow reacted with prostate related substance in the urine of cohort of patients with a serum prostate specific antigen in the range of 0.
Elements present in the water contribute to the osmolarity of E-water. The added total of all elements in the system such as the leached chemicals contribute minimally. Considering boron by itself, concentration ranges from 1. Such low concentration of the leached chemicals as measured in these waters would not account for this difference in osmolarity, which was found after the irradiation.
Thus, the alteration in osmolarity that we observed is related to some unique phenomenon which is not defined by the elemental composition of the tested waters. Healing is associated with the immune system. In disease eruptions, suppression of an immune response via the T cell network, is of utmost importance in various instances as in transplant immunology and autoimmune diseases.
Data on T cell proliferation demonstrated that E-blue showed maximal inhibition of PHA stimulated T cell proliferation by a non toxic mechanism. The immunosuppression of T cells lends credibility to the possibility of a particular E-water to be of importance in a disease paradigm. Solar energy has been used to detoxify water infected with viral and bacterial contamination [ 2 — 5 ]. However, solarized water has not been used to address the problem of mosquito biology. Since mosquitoes can spread disease the issue of mosquito control is of great importance.
All mosquitoes spend their larval and pupal stages in water and our study has used this observation to study mosquito viability. The most interesting finding was that E-blue completely abolished larvae growth in the three concentrations tested undiluted, , The abolishment of mosquito larva in E-blue water at different dilutions provides evidence to the possibility of spraying stagnant waters with the E-blue water to destroy mosquitoes.
Water is the most abundant ingredient of active plant cells [ 10 ]. Seed germination does not require sunlight or soil, but it requires water [ 10 ]. Germination aids in the hydrolysis of the complex into simple sugars that are readily utilized in the synthesis of auxins and proteins [ 15 ].
The auxins help to soften cell walls to facilitate growth and the proteins are readily utilized in the production of new plant tissues [ 15 ]. Thus, germination when accelerated is capable of improving crop yield and boasting farmers income in agricultural industry involved in growing crops such as tomatoes Lycopersecum esculentum Mill and tamarind Tamarindus indica L [ 15 , 16] Our germination studies showed that regardless of the vessel at 72 hours, E-orange enhanced while E-red inhibited seed germination when compared to E-control.
Results indicate that a change took place independent of the source of water well water versus double distilled , type of container plastic or glass , or the season of the year summer versus fall. Distilled water when compared to well water has a reduced load of microorganisms.
The change in photochemical property of well water in comparison to distilled water maybe due to the presence of microorganisms in the well water. The mode of energy transfer however, as these investigations indicate, seems to be governed by a process independent of the presence of bacterial and viral contaminants.
In both well and double distilled water at 72 hours with E-orange there was a maximal activation of seed germination. When the arrow is moved to a particular distance behind the glass, it looks like it reversed itself. When light passes from one material to another, it can bend or refract. In the experiment that you just completed, light traveled from the air, through the glass, through the water, through the back of the glass, and then back through the air, before hitting the arrow.
Anytime that light passes from one medium, or material, into another, it refracts. Just because light bends when it travels through different materials, doesn't explain why the arrow reverses itself. When light goes through a magnifying glass the light bends toward the center.
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